José Clemente Orozco Workshop Museum

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The José Clemente Orozco Workshop Museum houses PAOS GDL; this house would be the artist's last studio.

Designed by the Engineer Edmundo Ponce Adame, according to the specifications and needs of Orozco himself, the house was built from the end of 1948 to the beginning of 1949 and the painter planned to live in it all his old age. This workshop was the second that Orozco had in Guadalajara. The first, located at López Cotilla 814 and inhabited while making the murals for the Auditorium of the University of Guadalajara and the Hospicio Cabañas, had been sold before acquiring the land on Calle Aurelio Aceves.

Clemente Orozco Valladares, the painter's son, mentions that the two workshops in Guadalajara, and two others in Mexico City, were designed by his father. Similarly, in the book José Clemente Orozco, Alma Reed mentions that “in the planning and design of the three-story building, the artist had put into service not only his early architectural practices but the construction methods he had learned during his 3 years at the San Jacinto School of Agriculture ”.

Despite the fact that the original design was made by José Clemente Orozco, the construction was modified with the intervention of civil engineer Edmundo Ponce Adame, who was in charge of the calculations and supervision of the work.

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The final design was, then, a mixture of the styles of Orozco and Ponce Adame; Regarding construction, the engineer said: “The design was mine, but following the teacher's instructions. He said: I want a room here. We were adjusting to the possibilities and the final design has already turned out, here the main thing is the study itself, José Clemente did not give much importance to the rest and he was the one who said the dimensions, he told me: I want it to be 9.50 height free ”.

There is no certainty of the exact date that José Clemente Orozco began to inhabit the workshop house, but at the end of May 1949, before it was finished, he already resided in it on an itinerant basis, as he came and went from Mexico City to Guadalajara continuously.
 

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The creation and realization of the Workshop Museum was achieved thanks to the inspiration and wishes of Mrs. Margarita Valladares, Orozco's widow, who understood the importance of the composition of her husband's work. She was in charge of managing what was necessary before the National Institute of Fine Arts and the Government of the State of Jalisco for the enrichment of the Mexican heritage by disseminating the artist's pictorial work and the important features of his personal life. The work of modifying the house and adapting its spaces to give greater functionality to the new museum, began in March 1951. The most significant work on the house consisted of: removing one of the walls of the kitchen and the laundry room. Covering the mezzanine door that opened onto the balcony, covering an opening in the main window, which Orozco used to dry the finished works and add one more level to the house.

These modifications, although significant, did not affect the original design visualized by José Clemente Orozco and made by Edmundo Ponce Adame. The José Clemente Orozco Workshop Museum, opened on November 9, 1951, was the first museum entirely dedicated to an artist in Mexico. The opening ceremony was attended by personalities such as Santiago Fraga, senior officer of the Secretary of Education, and Jesús González Gallo, the then governor of the State of Jalisco.

That same year, the house was purchased by the state government. The Workshop Museum exhibited working instruments, easel paintings, paintings, personal photos and the original furniture of the house where the artist lived before he died, in addition to offering temporary exhibitions of the artist's extensive work. The administration of the Museum was in charge of the Orozco y Valladares family until 1982.

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Margarita Valladares was in her charge for thirty years without pay. In November 1990, the goods exhibited in the Museo Taller were handed over to the Government of the State of Jalisco by Lucrecia Orozco Valladares, daughter of José Clemente Orozco. The loan agreement grants 767 assets that in life belonged to the painter; These assets consisted of: 44 personal documents, 64 photographs, 36 books, 36 catalogs and magazines, 42 letters and posters, 11 diplomas, 522 work objects and 13 furniture. At that time it changed its name to José Clemente Orozco House Museum. This contract had a duration of four years, however, for unknown reasons, the period ended before the indicated date.

When the house came to be administered by the Cabañas Cultural Institute, in 1992, the work of José Clemente Orozco, acquired by the State Government, comes under its protection because its infrastructure had made it the most conducive institution to preserve the work of the painter. The institute is in charge of 340 works by José Clemente Orozco, in addition to the frescoes in the Capilla Mayor, among which are pyroxylin paintings, drawings, engravings and sketches.

In 1993, the Aesthetic Research and Documentation Directorate of the State Secretariat for Culture transferred its offices to the House-Museum. During this new administration, different activities related to the operation of the house and the life of José Clemente Orozco were scheduled, including painting courses and conferences on the painter's work.

In 1994 and 2002 the function of the house was focused on the presentation of different plastic arts exhibitions, among them was the pictorial work of Gilberto Aceves Navarro and the large format drawings of Luis Nishizawa.

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